Hailed as one of the main technical textiles and nonwovens trade fairs Techtextil 2013 in Frankfurt is expected to be the biggest in the exhibitions history. It will cover the whole industry with its 12 different application areas. Techtextil takes place at Messe Frankfurt from June 11-13. The event attracted nearly 30,000 visitors in 2011. The following is a preview of what some exhibitors are planning for the three-day event.
Andritz is presenting its state-of-the-art technologies for the nonwovens and technical textiles sectors at Techtextil in Frankfurt. Andritz Asselin-Thibeau, Andritz Küsters, and Andritz Perfojet provide full line and individual concepts for spunlace, wetlaid, needlepunch, bonding and finishing for spunbond applications, as well as top performance solutions for technical textiles.
Andritz also offers high-speed, integrated production lines. For technical fibers and durable products, such as automotive or filtration substrates, the neXline spunlace with Jetlace Evolution hydro entanglement unit provides efficiency over a wide range of industrial applications, either for high capacity or for bonding power.
In addition, the Andritz Spunjet technology creates a new generation of spunlaid nonwovens with superior fabric properties with regard to bulk, softness, drape, and tensile strength. In combination with a calender, customers have a choice of different bonding and finishing options.
Another highlight is the wetlaid technology for the development of innovative products from natural and man-made fibers, for example carbon, microglass and aramid.
For the needlepunch market, the Excelle double card with TT outlet system is another innovation by Andritz that is now applied to crosslapping. It can be set to provide highly uniform carded webs with MD/CD ratios well below 3:1. Due to the TT card system, the crosslapper is capable of producing light to heavy fabric weights with balanced MD/CD strength ratios and allows the production of needled felts with low to high elongation percentages and with high tensile strength values.
In addition, Andritz presents the Zéta drafting unit, designed for speeds of over 40 m/min and with unequalled torque to provide high drafting capabilities and minimize aspect distortion during fabric elongation.
For the technical textiles market, Andritz has also developed an innovative calender concept incorporating proven technologies from the production of paper and nonwovens. The teXcal trike, a 3-roll calender with two separately controlled system rolls, provides outstanding productivity and flexibility in the production of technical textiles. The concept now features the teXmaster system with closed-loop operation for inline quality measurements on the product, for example air permeability measurements. Direct analysis of the data obtained at the calender outlet is used to control the system rolls.
Autefa Solutions will introduce a new concept for fiber recycling. “With our fiber recycling concept we offer all necessary components from one single source for the nonwoven industry and thus ensure that all process steps are realized effectively and competently,” says Dr. Stefan Schlichter, managing director. “The core components of our recycling line are high-performance fiber balers as well as a compact tearing machine. Our customers need efficient systems, which enable an economic fiber recycling in order to refeed the high quality fiber material in the production process.”
Carbon fiber-reinforced components are in greater demand than ever, according to Schlichter. “Our machines are running very successfully in lines for carbon fiber processing,” he says. “Here we are a competent partner and we will provide a lot of information at Techtextil.”
Autefa Solutions delivers complete lines as well as individual machines for nonwovens manufacturing. Application fields are the production of artificial leather, filter products and paper-machine felts, automotive felts, geotextiles, floor coverings, felts for insulation and nonwovens for the hygiene industry.
The Injection Card Plus uses the aerodynamic principle for gentle fiber treatment. The improved carding effect, the modular machine construction and the easy cleaning system in particular make the machines suitable for high production spunlace lines and ADL nonwovens.
The aerodynamic principle of the Airlay Card K 12 DIRECT results in maximum product quality and economical production. The Airlay Card K 12 DIRECT is suitable for the production of top quality webs in a weight range of 80 g/m² to 6.000 g/m². Due to the direct transfer from the chute feed to the Airlay Card without an additional opener, the fibers are gently opened and formed into the nonwoven fabric. The flexible Airlay Card K 12 can be used for all fiber types. These are all kinds of man-made fibers, viscose, cotton, cotton blend, jute, flax, hemp, generated waste and special fibers.
The Crosslapper Topliner is a key machine in many nonwoven installations. The Crosslapper Topliner increases product quality in new installations or as a replacement in existing lines, while contributing to save raw material at the same time.
The needle loom Stylus is equipped with the innovative Variliptic drive system, which enables high production speeds while also ensuring a gentle needling of the nonwoven fabric. This is particularly important during the first process step, the preneedling. The Variliptic drive system optimizes the surface of the nonwoven fabric, while also protecting fibers and minimizing the needle wear. The machine has been delivered to numerous customers and has shown its specific advantages in field operation.
Autefa says it is experiencing global growth in the business area of fiber balers, both in the Asian textile markets and as a boost in Europe and North America.
Alongside their application by viscose and polyester fiber manufacturers, fiber balers are also used in the pulp industry for filling fibers for diapers. Other areas of application include the pressing of pulp for the paper industry, the processing of filament tow in the cigarette industry and tow logistics for precursors in carbon fiber production.
The UNI-FORK system from Autefa Solutions replaces manual balers and is fully automated, organizing the complete fiber logistics for fiber lines, including fiber bale packing, weighing and labeling.
The transfer fork UNI-FORK is universally applicable. This means high-performance fiber lines producing well over 300 tons per day or smaller special lines for aramides, polypropylene or spun-dyed fibers can be individually customized. The automation is complete with the hooding packing AD-WRAP: This means an output of up to 100 fiber bales per hour is possible.
Three machine manufacturers represent the company Autefa Solutions. These are Autefa in Friedberg (Bavaria); Austria-based Fehrer in Linz; and the Italian company F.O.R. in Biella as well as the newly founded companies Autefa Solutions North America and Autefa Solutions Wuxi (China).
At Techtextil, Collano will unveil innovative specialty adhesives for the apparel industry including shoes, leisurewear, sportswear and protective clothing at its stand J40 in Hall 3.0. The Swiss adhesives specialist will also present technical textile adhesives for use in the construction industry, the domestic, industrial and medical sectors, and for geotextiles. The company will have two new highlights at the exhibition: thermoplastic film adhesives with ecopassport certification, and a “system” consisting of a breathable membrane and corresponding moisture-curing PUR hotmelt.
For manufacturers of outdoor fashion, military clothing, sportswear and workwear, Collano has developed a system in which the adhesive is perfectly matched to the high-quality breathable membrane. Not only does this ensure maximum reliability in laminate production, it also meets requirements on high breathability, lightness, washing resistance and soft, textile handle.
Products certified to Ökotext Standard 100 create transparency and act as a safeguard for both textile manufacturers and users. Thermoplastic film adhesives from Collano were recently awarded this ecopassport certificate. Textile manufacturers now know that the delivered adhesives have already been tested, which saves them time and money. Collano is helping to reassure users that textiles have been tested for harmful substances.
DiloGroup is presenting its portfolio of equipment to the nonwovens industry. The company will provide extensive information about production lines made in Germany and recent machine concepts from the DiloGroup companies DiloTemafa, DiloSpinnbau and DiloMachines. A major focus of the new equipment is to improve operation efficiency, web quality and uniformity with positive effects on all staple fiber bonding processes. All these elements are part of the “Dilo – Isomation Process” and aim at an even web mass for reduced fiber consumption because raw materials are the biggest cost factor in textile production.
One machine contributing to this process is the dosing opener DON manufactured by DiloTemafa, which includes a fine opening stage. It delivers the fibrous material continuously and homogeneously to the card feeder.
Another step to improve evenness is the card feeder MultiFeed designed by DiloSpinnbau, which is available in working widths up to 5 m. This machine using the “Twinflow” infeed system offers a capacity of over 400 kg/hour/m of working width when processing 1.7 dtex fibers. It represents a state-of-the-art feeding solution for direct cards. The use of a “Twinflow” infeed applies the doubling effect for a more homogeneous flock mass flow.
The Spinnbau MultiCard provides high production availability due to its easy and fast accessibility for cleaning and maintenance work. It handles the full range of fiber fineness and length with a web speed potential of up to 200 m/min and represents an economic solution for crosslaid nonwoven production.
Dilo crosslappers provide infeed speeds up to ca. 200 m/min (HL series) and over 160 m/min (DL series). The DL series may be equipped with the Webguide from DiloMachines, which also provides web homogeneity at high speeds and therefore results in significant fibre savings. DiloMachines offers a complete range of vertical and horizontal crosslappers, which ensure high layering precision based on excellent web control up to working widths of 16 m.
The sales program of DiloMachines includes the complete range of needlelooms, from single board needling on one side to two boards from each side, plus structuring and patterning specialty looms. Endless felt tubes can be needled and also wide working width belts for papermachine clothing applications. The further development of needlelooms continues. Elliptical and circular needlebeam movements are used to control drafts in the needling zone and to provide high speed felt production especially in the low weight range.
Dollfus & Muller
Based in Mulhouse-France, Dollfus & Muller manufactures technical woven fabrics and endless felts for the industry, as well as resells textile Medias for the ink jet printing.
Dollfus & Muller manufacturers woven fabric belts and felts including dryer belts, fluidization fabrics, filters and endless felts; as well as wide width fabrics in Nomex, polyester, polypropylene and PPS. These have many applications including transport of nonwovens, biscuits, textiles; fluidization of powders (alumina, cement, plaster); and filters for the food industry. The company is also a distributor of wide width fire retardant fabrics for printing.
Needle specialist Groz-Beckert will be displaying a brand new Mercedes saloon that will be used to demonstrate the many uses for nonwovens and technical textiles in the automotive sector.
Nonwovens dominate the 35 square meters—28 kilos—of textile material now employed in such vehicles as a result of higher requirements for comfort and safety, the company says, and uses for them are growing all the time. These materials are found in the door panels, seats, air conditioning and filters systems in addition to their use as insulating material.
In applications where elasticity and resilience is required, knitted fabric is also used in areas such as the headliner and as the base support for interior linings. Due to their breaking strength and low elongation, meanwhile, woven fabrics are highly suitable for seat covers, airbags and safety belts and tufted materials are extensively applied in areas like the floor mats.
The seams in such cars are also subject to high requirements, in order to create safe connections in airbags and safety belts, while decorative seams must have an extremely even appearance.
Groz-Beckert will also be demonstrating its new Board Master System for manufacturers of needlepunched nonwovens at Techtextil. The company says two components make it the ideal solution for more efficient needle board logistics—the fast and efficient NeedleMaster needle inserting system known and BoardScoot, and a mechanical wagon for safe transportation of needle boards.
As a leading provider of industrial machine needles, precision parts and fine tools, Groz-Beckert today employs around 8,000 people and has an annual turnover of over €500 million.
Johns Manville (JM), the maker of Evalith glass and polyester fiber nonwovens, will introduce the “JM Path of Innovation” at its Techtextil show booth. As a novelty, JM will present an innovative nonwoven with a special coating for digital and direct printing, ideally suited as a decorative and reinforcement layer for thin and light wood-based materials.
Self-reinforcing polyester spunbonds and also glass/polymer hybrid nonwovens for applications in thermoplastic composites used in mold constructions as well as materials with flame retarding or antimicrobial properties for the automotive, filtration or construction sector will also be exhibited.
One of the company’s focal points will be honeycomb structures made of pressed nonwovens which evidence excellent acoustic properties in light constructions. JM will also exhibit hybrid nonwovens for flooring, wall and ceiling applications demanding a high degree of smooth and even surfaces and display outstanding haptics.
Binder-free, non-flammable glass fiber needled mats by JM distinguish themselves with their temperature resistance of up to 500°C and will also be presented at the booth, along with the latest nonwoven developments for air liquid filtration, a segment where JM is one of the leading suppliers.
JM is also exhibiting at the booth a non-flammable A2 rated material composite developed in cooperation with a customer and intended for use as a decorative board for ventilated curtain facades.
Laroche, a world leader in textile waste recycling lines, will show a full range of products made from their latest technologies. After setting up more than 80 Laroche airlay units all over the world to make nonwoven products for different applications, Laroche will introduce their latest innovations in their airlay generation Flexiloft, as well as a new low cost process for the decortication of bast fibers specially dedicated to long fibers with optimum quality for technical applications as well as for classical textiles.
NSC Fibre to Yarn
NSC promotes spinning lines for processing long staple fibers for technical applications. Long staple yarns can be spun in various blends from any high performance fibers including natural fibers (wool, silk, flax, ramie, hemp) and man-made fibers (acrylic, PVA high tenacity, aramid). Long staple fabrics are appreciated for their strength, flexibility, cleanliness, evenness, traditional look and soft touch.
NSC Fibre to Yarn proposes 3 processes to produce long staple top of technical fibers: the carding, stretch breaking and crush cutting. These 3 ways are composed of different machines: cards, converters, pin drafters, blenders, defelters, combers and rubbing, roving and spinning frames based on 4 trademarks—Cognetex, San’t Andrea Novara, N.Schlumberger, and Seydel—under the NSC Fibre to Yarn banner.
At Techtextil Oerlikon Textile and its Oerlikon Barmag and Oerlikon Neumag brands will showcase solutions for the efficient production of innovative yarns for special applications as well as a new nonwoven production process, which will allow it to offer systems for the manufacture of bitumen and underlay roofing membranes and geotextiles.
With systems and equipment for manufacturing substrates for bitumen roofing membranes, for underlay roofing membranes and also for geotextiles, Oerlikon Neumag, one of the leading suppliers of nonwoven technologies, offers the complete spunbond process, from polymer granulate all the way through to rolled goods. “In terms of the system width, our machines are not just able to produce up to five times more material, they also help cut operating costs for energy and maintenance and save on operating staff costs,” says Dr. Ingo Mählmann, the Oerlikon Neumag nonwovens expert.
He sees a clear trend particularly within the construction sector towards the utilization of spunbonds instead of the stable and fiberglass products used to date, also because these nonwovens are, due to their single-step production, less expensive to manufacture. “Bitumen roofing and geotextiles are perfect examples of this, but this trend fundamentally also applies to many other construction nonwovens, such as those used for reinforcement or drainage,” Mählmann says.
Technical spunbonds are predominantly manufactured from polyester. In the manufacturing of Polyester, Oerlikon Neumag is able to draw on its comprehensive long-time staple fiber systems production know-how.
For the 13th consecutive time, family-owned and operated nonwoven specialist Sandler from Schwarzenbach/Saale, Bavaria will present its extensive range of nonwovens at Techtextil. For the automotive industry, Sandler presents a broad spectrum of highly efficient fibrous absorbers of the sawasorb product series. These lightweight materials contribute to lightweight construction in the vehicle and support the preservation of valuable resources. The single-polymer nonwovens are not only recyclable themselves; they are partly made from recycled fibers.
Also on display will Sandler products for the filtration industry including media for filter classes G3 to E11 for applications in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning, automotive filtration and synthetic vacuum cleaner bags.
From energy efficient application to disposal—synthetic Sandler pocket filter media contribute to reducing the filter’s life cycle costs. With their low average pressure drop they reduce energy consumption during the operation of the filtration plant. Progressively structured filter media comprise finest fibres of less than 1µm and achieve high efficiency and high dust holding capacity. Even after discharge, Sandler filter media maintain their efficiency and thereby fulfil current testing standards.
In 2013, new developments for pleatable filter media are at the center of Sandler’s trade fair participation. Capable of being processed in all common pleating processes, these synthetic filter media of the sawascreen product series set new standards. A lengthwise oriented fiber structure allows for accurate pleating. The utilised polymers make the pleats resilient and resistant to mechanical influences, temperature or moisture.
Another highlight at this year‘s Techtextil are newly developed nonwovens for water filtration. For construction and technical applications, Sandler fiber comfort nonwovens combine excellent insulation with individual design opportunities. Facade renovation, the insulation of interior walls and roof or footfall sound insulation are easy with single-polymer Sandler nonwovens. For soundproofing and heat insulation synthetic nonwovens prove themselves as durable multi-taskers and promote environmental protection and the reduction of energy consumption at the same time. In industrial buildings, for example, they are applied as baffles, dampening machine noise and other sounds; in open plan offices suspended ceilings and partition walls made with nonwovens optimally regulate the noise level in support of concentrated work and also provide possibilities for individual office design.
Another important market for Sandler are nonwovens for hygiene and wipes applications where softness, care and elasticity for comfortable use are the topics that will continue to shape products for hygiene, wipes and medical applications. In the market for wipes substrates Sandler offers nonwovens in even lower basis weights. This year, Sandler will show Techtextil attendees new developments for household cleaning cloths. With high tensile strength, high dirt absorption and a special fiber structure these nonwovens achieve excellent cleaning results.
Spoolex SAS will exhibit its three brands for converting process quality at Techtextil.
Calemard is a well-known slitter/rewinder/traverse winder manufacturer, which produces proven solutions synonymous with quality and highly technical for major textile and nonwovens players. This range of machineries covers all slitting needs—from compact slitter able to convert secondary rolls into narrow tapes or tubes up to 6mm wide, to XXL slitter rewinder up to 3.4 meter working width and also spooling lines to produce narrow spools to jumbo spools of nonwovens.
The quality of the final product is more and more depending on the precision of slitting and the good control of the material tensions. For sure, poor slitting precision, variable reel density and web tension variation, affect the quality of the product reel. As expert in highly technical slitting-rewinding solution, all our machines have the same common interest: the capacity to precisely control the tensions to protect the most fragile product. One of the main advantages of our equipment is their modular design with large number of options. Thanks to this adaptability, we are able to propose standard slitter-rewinders or customized as per your needs! Integrated or separated unwinder, many slitting solutions depending on your materials (cold, hot, combined or ultrasonic) and rewinding module either axial or contact technology.
The group’s ultrasonic division presented under its Decoup+ brand, proposes different cutting and welding equipment, applicable at any stage of the textile production and converting process. From handheld devices for final make-up operations, to module to be integrated on weaving looms, stenters or off-line machines, the group’s industrial range of proven solutions are specifically adapted to continuous operations.
For cutting on looms Decoup+ proposes compact and easy to install devices on any type of loom, producing stable and consistent edges, while maintaining fabric properties. Reliable and affordable, this equipment is the solution to avoid hot cutting drawbacks.
Decoup+ has also a strong experience in splicing benches. Installed at the exit of nonwovens production lines, splicing benches are used to join two bobbins together or to eliminate defects during control processes. Our ultrasonic splicing technology performs strong join without overthickness while maintaining the original properties of the product, and so, eliminates the risk during finishing operations, to stop the lines to scrap the neck and overthickness resulting from a hot wire splicing.
For final make-up operations Decoup+® proposes a manual range of equipment: autonomous workstation to perform high quality cutting, sealing or welding operations only with tool changes, and hand held units for spot welding, straight or profile cutting, adapted to multi-purposed operations.
Discover all the advantages of ultrasonic cutting technology: come to our stand with your product and make on-site your own trials! Then Roll Concept, the group’s industrial rollers division, designs and manufactures the patented Alveotube product line. This Eco-solution is the best aluminium compromise on the market between bending resistance and inertia and allows decreasing electrical power need and consumption during speed-up phases. Specially engineered to improve process performance and increase line speed on web handling and converting industry, the lightweight precision rollers and cores ensure easy installation, easy handling and durability.
Stäubli will present 2 machines that fit especially well in the production process of technical textiles. Unival 100 is a single-end control Jacquard machine, which offers more benefits for sophisticated technical textiles such as automotive and aeronautic textiles, technical textiles in the sports, industrial, medical sectors, and new fabric constructions, even with glass fiber, carbon, and Kevlar.
Magma T12 is a warp-tying machine for technical yarn ties monofilaments, coarse multifilaments, PP ribbons, bast fibers, coarse staple fibers, and many other fiber types. It has been developed for universal application ranging from coarse technical yarns to medium yarn-count range. Its rigid design includes an optical double-end detection system. Magma is being demonstrated at the booth tying wide polypropylene tapes.
Stäubli will also present samples of technical fabrics that have been produced in conjunction with Stäubli products such as dobbies, Jacquard machines, warp drawing-in or tying equipment, and Schönherr weaving systems will be shown together with samples of technical fabric woven on
Schönherr weaving machines Alpha 400 Leantec, Alpha 500 Tech, and D_Tech. The Alpha 400 Leantec carpet-weaving machine is specifically designed for weaving special floor coverings and technical fabrics. Artificial grass can be woven on the Leantec with advantages over conventional tufting technology due to production speed and pile heights up to 2 x 70 mm.
Technical Absorbents (TAL) will be located at stand A02 in Hall 4.1, which is mainly focused on fibers and yarns. In addition to promoting its core product—Super Absorbent Fibre (SAF)—the company will also be displaying its toll manufactured nonwoven fabrics, yarns and tapes, which are already used in a wide range of applications.
One of the main products on display will be its durable KoolSorb technology, a washable fabric created to provide coolant functionality when worn under heavy clothing. During the event, TAL will also be able to demonstrate the benefits provided by its super absorbent technology when used within advanced wound care pads, disposable hygiene products, nonwoven filtration media, absorbent food pads, water-blocking geotextiles, water-retaining agrotextiles, and water-blocking yarns and tapes for the cable industry.
“Innovation is at the heart of everything we do as a company,” says TAL business development manager Dave Hill. “Events such as TechTextil not only allow us to promote the wide range of uses for our fibrous super absorbent technology, but also discover new opportunities and areas for further exploration.”
KoolSorb is one of TAL’s latest product innovations and samples of this fabric will be available to view during the event. It is just one example of how TAL has taken what is in its raw form a super absorbent, and through creative product development realized a unique product for the functional apparel market.
Representative from TAL’s product development team will be available at its stand throughout TechTextil. To pre-arrange a meeting, email email@example.com.
Trevira is intensifying its activities in the field of technical textiles and at Techtextil its program covers fiber—including bicomponent fibers in polyester and PLA Ingeo, flame retardant and other special fibers, and yarns in polyester, standard and spun-dyed filaments, as well as microfilament and hybrid yarns.
Trevira filaments cover a broad range of applications for technical textiles. Flame retardant yarns for the construction of exhibition stands and print base materials (Trevira CS) are now standard. In addition, there are special yarns for medicine and hygiene textiles, as well as textured PBT filaments as a basis for transdermal patches and bandages.
Hybrid yarns constitute an important specialty. Here a low-melt component (NSK) is combined with a Trevira standard or flame retardant filament.
Using thermal treatment, textile fabrics made from these hybrid yarns can be controlled and shaped almost at will, and finally fixed in this state. They can in fact also be described as thermoplastic composites/prepregs. The single-material composition of these products (100% Polyester) means they can be recycled. They can be finished in a variety of ways, all energy-saving, and they are dyeable and printable. This makes them an interesting alternative, in both ecological and economic terms, since a stiffening coating of acrylate, for example, becomes superfluous. When used in combination with flame retardant Trevira filaments the materials satisfy important international fire standards.
Mixing Trevira NSK filaments with glass and/or carbon filament makes it possible to produce high-performance thermoplastic composites or prepregs, e.g. for vehicle construction.
With staple fibers Trevira continues to focus on customer-specific product developments. Standard elements in the delivery program are short-cut fibers for airlaid and wetlaid applications, for instance in hygiene products or the paper industry. Flame retardant fibers are also increasingly found in nonwoven products.
The extensive range in bico fibers comprises the various raw material combinations, such as PET/PE, PET/Co-PET and PET/PBT. Bico fibers in core-sheath technology are used primarily in the manufacture of thermally bonded materials (nonwovens), for instance in the automotive sector, for insulation and filtration materials, and also for hygiene products.
In new developments within its fiber program Trevira is focusing more and more on ecological solutions. The sustainability concept in this product range is mainly based on optimizing existing products in the PES fiber program, such as a PET/PE fiber with low melting point. This saves energy during processing and/or allows a higher operational throughput. In addition, the range of fibers in biopolymers (PLA) for a variety of technical applications has been extended. It now includes a PLA/PLA bico fiber that is currently at the commercialization stage.
Recycling is also an important issue. At Trevira headquarters in Bobingen work is proceeding on the development of a concept for recycling Trevira products.
Verdol will offer a complete range of technologies and machinery for the processing of filament yarns. T&I Yarns offer one step further in innovation says the company. The UT, UTC and UTW machines are well known all over the world for their flexibility. Different products can be twisted on each spindle due to fully individual driven positions, from spindle to take-up. UTC 60 is designed for the twisting, cabling and direct cabling of all types of industrial yarns; UTW40, is dedicated to 3-ply cord cabling in a single step process; CP 20 is for tire cord processing, with a complete new design from the frame to the textile equipment. Carpet yarns: Focus on reducing energy consumption. CD, DT and CDDT are now available with ecoTex, the well-known technological textile components, which enables a significantly reduced energy consumption. Glass Yarns: The machines are designed to fit customers’ demands. M.U.S.T.: Monitoring Unit System for Textile machinery.
Verdol will also display its complete and comprehensive plant management system. It enables a live overview of process information, production results and quality control data at all levels from the cabler and twister to the weaving looms. Its web-based conception ensures remote access, gateway with main ERP, mobile application on PDA and display on wallboard.